Mid-way through 2014, California currently leads the nation with $2.1 billion in National Institutes of Health (NIH) award funding, while Massachusetts and New York are ranked 2nd and 3rd, with about $1.4B each. Not surprisingly, Massachusetts — much smaller in size and population — has far and away the most concentrated NIH funding per capita, currently at $218. That’s about 4 times California and 3 times New York, and a big reason for the strength of the Cambridge/Boston biotech hub.
[Update: Note that these figures from the NIH are 2014 year to date. Full year 2103 data can be found in the Data Center]
NIH competitive award funding data as of 28 July 2014: http://nih.gov. Total NIH annual appropriations for 2014 will be $30 billion, with award funding likely around $22-$24 billion (FY 2013 award funding was $22 billion).
Population data (July 1, 2013 estimates): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._states_and_territories_by_population.
Outliers: The District of Columbia has a relatively small amount of NIH funding ($107 million), but only 650,000 people, hence per capita spending of $165. NIH intramural funding at the Bethesda medical research campus is not included in this data, and would raise the Maryland total and per capita funding numbers somewhat.